What is being taught lesson by lesson:
- The formation of crude oil and introduction to the alkanes.
- The process of fractional distillation and how it works.
- The uses and properties of each of the fractions. Describe and explain the trends in the alkanes linking to their chain length.
- Combustion – both complete and incomplete. Balanced symbol equations.
- The process of catalytic cracking and alkenes. Describe the test for an alkene.
Key Terms for this topic (Tier 3 vocabulary)
Hydrocarbon – alkane – alkene – saturated – unsaturated – complete combustion – incomplete combustion – crude oil – fraction – fractional distillation – volatile – viscous – homologous series – catalytic cracking.
What everyone needs to know:
Where crude oil is found today, how it was formed and that it is a finite resource. You need to know that crude oil is a mixture of many different organic compounds and it needs to be separated into fractions to be useful. You need to know, describe and explain the process of fractional distillation and the names and uses of a selection of these fractions.
Alkanes and alkenes are examples of hydrocarbons, you need to know the names of the first 4 alkanes and show their formula. e.g. ethane is C2H6.
There are clear patterns between the length of the carbon chain and viscosity, flammability and boiling temperature which you need to know.
Catalytic cracking is a process in which long alkanes and be broken down into smaller alkanes and alkenes. The alkanes can be used in fuels whereas the alkenes are used to make polymers (plastics).
Extra topics needed for the Higher papers:
In this topic, there is nothing extra for the higher papers, the questions will just be more challenging.