What everyone needs to know:
Eukaryotic cells – Plant and animal cells, what they contain and the functions of all of the organelles including the location of chromosomes (normally found in pairs) and DNA in the nucleus.
Prokaryotic cells – Bacterial cells, their make-up and how they are different from the above.
Specialised cells and what makes them special for their role, learn examples such as sperm, nerve, muscle, root hair, xylem and phloem cells.
Stem cells and differentiation,including the meristem tissues of plants. Look into the possibility of stem cells being used to treat diabetes and paralysis. Look into the financial, moral and ethical thoughts of stem cell use as well as the risks of viral transfer.
Mitosis and all of the processes of the cell cycle
You need to understand osmosis, diffusion and active transport. Make sure that you are happy with the maths involved in calculating percentage mass gain or change.
Using a microscope and calculating magnification.
Required practical 1 – Use a light microscope to observe then label and draw parts of cells, you need to include a scale.
Required practical 2 – Investigate the effect of a range of concentrations of sugar or salt solutions on the mass of plant tissue.
Extra topics needed for the Higher papers:
In this topic, there is nothing extra for the higher papers, the questions will just be more challenging.