What is being taught lesson by lesson:
- The relationship between cells, tissues and organs.
- The digestive system and the role of the enzymes.
- The structure of the heart and the three types of blood vessels.
- Blood, its components and their roles.
- Coronary heart disease.
- Health issues.
- How lifestyle can affect non-communicable diseases.
- Plant tissue and structures.
- Plant organ systems including the structure of the leaf.
Key Terms for this topic (Tier 3 vocabulary)
Cell – tissue – organ – gland – liver – stomach – pancreas – intestine – alveoli – villi – oxygenated – deoxygenated – pulmonary – aorta – ventricle – atrium – artery – vein – capillary – platelet – plasma – antibody – antitoxin – stomata – xylem – phloem – mesophyll – epidermal – transpiration – translocation – enzyme – carbohydrate – lipid – protein.
Are you ready for your assessment in this topic? Try out this simple quiz.
What everyone needs to know:
Organ systems are made up of organs working together, organs are made from different tissues working together and tissues are made of cells working together.
Be familiar with the human digestive system, this is an example of an organ system. Link to enzymes and metabolism. Ensure that you can describe enzyme activity and differing pH and temperature and how they catalyse reactions. Lock and key theory, the roles of carbohydrase, protease and lipase are needed including simple word equations. Include the role of bile.
Required practical 3 – Use reagents to test for a range of different carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. (Food testing)
Required practical 4 – Investigate the effect of pH on the rates of a reaction involving the enzyme amylase.
Describe the heart, its role and the structure of arteries, veins and capillaries and how they are suited to their role. List the components of blood and describe the job of each part, ensure that you can recognise different parts by image.
Non-communicable diseases (ones that cannot be caught) such as coronary heart disease. The effect of the build up of fatty material in the coronary arteries needs to be known as well as ways of preventing it and what the health problems are that it an cause.
Understand the effect on our health of both communicable and non-communicable diseases, you should be able to use data, such as graphs, to translate effects over time. What puts us at greater health risk such as smoking, alcohol, lack of exercise and how this affects us, the local community, the country or even a world wide issue. Cancer is the last part of disease, causes, treatments and ways to reduce the likelihood of developing certain cancers.
The last part is the plant systems. You need to understand how plant cells form tissues and organs and how they work together. The structure of the leaf optimises photosynthesis while root hair cells work with xylem and phloem to bring the needed water and nutrients to the palisade cells. You should be able to describe optimum conditions for photosynthesis.
Extra topics needed for the Higher papers:
In this topic, there is nothing extra for the higher papers, the questions will just be more challenging.