What everyone needs to know:

Density is the mass of an object divided by its volume. The volume can be calculated or for an irregular shape, measured using a displacement can or a measuring cylinder.

List all of the potential changes of state and the names of the process of changing between them (boiling, freezing etc.) Internal energy is a measure of the kinetic energy of the particles within a substance, when it is heated, the internal energy of the substance increases until it changes state.

Measuring the change in energy is done by referring to the specific heat capacity: ΔE = m c ΔΘ

Change in energy = mass x specific heat capacity x change in temperature.

Energy is needed to “rearrange” the particles in a substance when it changes state, this energy is called the Specific Latent Heat. When changing state, the temperature does not change. E=mL

Energy = mass x specific latent heat.

Finally, describe the random motion of particles in a gas. By changing the temperature at a constant volume will increase the pressure. You must be able to link this relationship and describe how one thing causes the other.

Required practical 17 – Measure the density of an object with an irregular shape. Use appropriate equipment and measurements.

Extra topics needed for the Higher papers:

In this topic, there is nothing extra for the higher papers, the questions will just be more challenging.

What is being taught week by week:

Week 1: This first week was an introduction to density

Week 2: How to measure density.

Week 3: Calculating density.